What are University Rankings?
University rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors. Rankings have most often been conducted by organisations such as governments, academics, magazines, newspapers and websites. In addition to ranking entire institutions, organisations perform rankings of specific programs, departments, and schools. Various rankings consider combinations of measures of funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialisation expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, internationalisation, graduate employment, industrial linkage, historical reputation and other criteria. Various rankings mostly evaluating on institutional output by research. Some rankings evaluate institutions within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide.
The three most widely followed university rankings are the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE), and QS World University Rankings (QS).
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)
The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) compiled originally by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and now maintained by the ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, has provided annual global rankings of universities since 2003, making it the earliest of its kind. ARWU does not rely on surveys and school submissions. Among other criteria, ARWU includes the number of articles published by Nature or Science and the number of Nobel Prize winners and Fields Medalists (mathematics).
Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE)
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Times Higher Education (THE) magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to publish the joint THE–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 before it turned to Thomson Reuters for a new ranking system. The publication now comprises the world’s overall, subject, and reputation rankings, alongside three regional league tables, Asia, Latin America, and BRICS & Emerging Economies which are generated by different weightings. THE Rankings is often considered as one of the most widely followed university rankings together with Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings.
In 2019, THE also published, for the first time, the THE World Impact Rankings, a table that ranks universities based on their contribution towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. These rankings are not based on institutional quality and do not evaluate all of the universities in the world, only the ones who request to be evaluated.
Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings (QS)
The QS World University Rankings are a ranking of the world’s top universities produced by Quacquarelli Symonds published annually since 2004. Along with Academic Ranking of World Universities and THE World University Rankings, the QS World University Rankings is widely recognised and cited as one of the 3 main world university rankings. The QS rankings use peer review data collected (in 2016) from 74,651 scholars and academics and 37,781 recruiters. The QS rankings also incorporate citation per faculty member data from Scopus, faculty/student ratios, and international staff and student numbers.
In 2019, the University of Nicosia ranked #91 in QS World University Rankings for the EECA Region. The Emerging Europe and Central Asia region includes approximately 1,800 universities from 26 countries, including Russia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Croatia, Romania, Estonia, Lithuania, Turkey and Ukraine.